The Scale of the Universe (1920); Curtis, Shapley
The Distance Scale to Gamma-ray Bursts (1995); Paczynski, Lamb
The Scale of the Universe (1996); Tammann, van den Bergh
The Nature of the Universe (1998); Peebles, Turner
Life in the Universe (2020) Many contributors
Each of the 20th century debates were held in April in the Baird auditorium of the Smithsonian's Museum of Natural History, the site of the original 1920 Shapley - Curtis debate. This delightful auditorium's general appearance has remained remarkably constant since the 1920s. Its large, central ceiling electrolier is the debate series logo used above.
In a celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Shapley - Curtis debate, the 2020 Life in the Universe debate was held online (and non-live) with text and video contributions from many. The debate question was "How will humanity first discover extraterrestrial life?"
These pages feature background information, educational material, and published proceedings for each debate.